Diabetes mellitus type 2 Engels

Diabetes - type 2

What is diabetes

  • Type 2 diabetes is a common condition that causes the level of sugar (glucose) in the blood to become too high.
  • It can cause symptoms like excessive thirst, needing to pee a lot and tiredness. It can also increase your risk of getting serious problems with your eyes, heart and nerves.
  • It's a lifelong condition that can affect your everyday life. You may need to change your diet, take medicines and have regular check-ups.
  • It's caused by problems with a chemical in the body (hormone) called insulin. It's often linked to being overweight or inactive, or having a family history of type 2 diabetes.

Symptoms

Many people have type 2 diabetes without realising. This is because symptoms do not necessarily make you feel unwell.

Symptoms of type 2 diabetes include:

  • peeing more than usual, particularly at night
  • feeling thirsty all the time
  • feeling very tired
  • losing weight without trying to
  • itching around your penis or vagina, or repeatedly getting thrush
  • cuts or wounds taking longer to heal
  • blurred vision

You're more at risk of developing type 2 diabetes if you:

  • are over 40 (or 25 for south Asian people)
  • have a close relative with diabetes (such as a parent, brother or sister)
  • are overweight or obese
  • are of Asian, African-Caribbean or black African origin (even if you were born in the UK)

Cause

Type 2 diabetes has several causes such as:

    • Smoking
    • Not exersizing enough
    • Being overweight
    • Age
    • Eating unhealthy food

What you can do

A healthy diet and keeping active will help you manage your blood sugar level.
It'll also help you control your weight and generally feel better.

You can eat many types of foods

There's nothing you cannot eat if you have type 2 diabetes, but you'll have to limit certain foods. You should:

  • Eat a wide range of foods – including fruit, vegetables and some starchy foods like pasta
  • Keep sugar, fat and salt to a minimum
  • Eat breakfast, lunch and dinner every day – do not skip meals

If you need to change your diet, it might be easier to make small changes every week.

Being active lowers your blood sugar level

Physical exercise helps lower your blood sugar level. You should aim for 2.5 hours of activity a week. You can be active anywhere as long as what you're doing gets you out of breath. This could be:

  • fast walking
  • climbing stairs
  • doing more strenuous housework or gardening

Your weight is important

Losing weight (if you're overweight) will make it easier for your body to lower your blood sugar level, and can improve your blood pressure and cholesterol. If you need to lose weight, it is recommended for most people to do it slowly over time. Aim for around 0.5 to 1kg a week.

There is evidence that eating a low-calorie diet (800 to 1,200 calories a day) on a short-term basis (around 12 weeks) can help with symptoms of type 2 diabetes. A low-calorie diet is not safe or suitable for everyone with type 2 diabetes, such as people who need to take insulin. So it is important to get medical advice before going on this type of diet!

Medication

Most people need medicine to control their type 2 diabetes. Medicine helps keep your blood sugar level as normal as possible to prevent health problems. You may have to take it for the rest of your life. Diabetes usually gets worse over time, so your medicine or dose may need to change. Adjusting your diet and being active is usually necessary to keep your blood sugar level down. You'll usually be offered a medicine called metformin first. If your blood sugar levels are not lower after taking metformin, you may need another medicine. Over time, you may need a combination of medicines. Your GP or diabetes nurse will recommend the medicines most suitable for you. Insulin is not often used for type 2 diabetes in the early years. It's usually needed when other medicines no longer work.

Taking your medicine

Your GP or diabetes nurse will explain how to take your medicine and how to store it. If you need to inject insulin, they'll show you how.

Side effects

Your diabetes medicine may cause side effects. These can include:

  • bloating and diarrhoea
  • weight loss or weight gain
  • feeling sick
  • swelling in one or more parts of your body due to a build-up of fluid under your skin

Not everyone has side effects. If you feel unwell after taking medicine or notice any side effects, speak to your GP or diabetes nurse. Do not stop taking medicine without getting advice.

When to go to the doctor

  • you have any of the symptoms of type 2 diabetes
  • you're worried you may have a higher risk of getting type 2 diabetes

A GP can diagnose diabetes. You'll need a blood test, which you may have to go to your local hospital for if it cannot be done at your GP surgery.

Source: NHSinform

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